APPENDIX
Raw data samples

Listed here are some examples of what kinds of data will be imported by Digital Atmosphere, depending on your checkmarks on the status panel. You can refer to these examples if you have any trouble getting Digital Atmosphere to read something or are unsure of what a particular product or bulletin should look like.

 

Airways (SAO) data

This is the backbone of weather observation code in the United States and Canada. It is issued hourly from thousands of weather stations. A sample report will look like this:

JFK SA 1150 250 SCT 7 113/44/21/2513/989=

 

SD RAREP radar reports

Also called hourly radar reports, RAREPS, and SD reports. Early versions of Digital Atmosphere do not import this type of data. Radar reports come from about 100 stations around the country. A few years ago, they were typed up by humans, but most of them are now centrally generated by computer based on images from NEXRAD radar sites around the country. This is what a radar report looks like:

MCI 0225 CELLS TRW/NEW 250/195 D10 C2330 MT 300

^OI22

 

FD winds aloft data

This is not an analysis of real conditions; rather it is numerical output from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (formerly NMC) in Washington, DC. It is used primarily for aviation forecasting purposes, consisting of a coded wind and temperature forecast at 12 and 24 hours into the future. Nevertheless, it makes excellent forecasting charts in Digital Atmosphere.

For Hours

ID Use Z From Now 3000 6000 9000 12000 18000 24000

2XG 09-18 00-09 3613 2911+06 2520+02 2430-03 2342-15 2462-26

 

Rawinsonde data

Also called TTAA data. This is the backbone of upper-air observation reports, sent twice daily from hundreds of stations worldwide (several dozen in the United States alone). It is a highly numerical, coded set of data that is used extensively in meteorological operations and is used as input into the numerical forecast models. Here's an example of what it looks like:

72558 TTAA 69121 72558 99973 00821 30002 00130 ///// /////

92762 01611 03014 85444 01850 00521 70993 04159 30025 50559 etc..

 

Weather watches

Also called SELS watches, watch boxes, or even WWUS9 KMKC. This is an English bulletin produced by forecasters at the Storm Prediction Center (formerly NSSFC, the National Severe Storms Forecast Center).

WWUS9 KMKC 141239

SEL7

MKC WW 141239

KSZ000-142000-

BULLETIN - IMMEDIATE BROADCAST REQUESTED

SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH NUMBER 77

NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE KANSAS CITY MO

639 AM CST THU MAR 14 1996

.A..THE STORM PREDICTION CENTER HAS ISSUED A SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH FOR

PARTS OF EAST-CENTRAL AND SOUTHEASTERN KANSAS

EFFECTIVE THIS THURSDAY MORNING AND AFTERNOON UNTIL 200 PM CST.

LARGE HAIL...DANGEROUS LIGHTNING AND DAMAGING THUNDERSTORM WINDS

ARE POSSIBLE IN THESE AREAS.

THE SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WATCH AREA IS ALONG AND 45 STATUTE MILES

NORTH AND SOUTH OF A LINE FROM 45 MILES WEST OF EMPORIA KANSAS TO

45 MILES EAST OF CHANUTE KANSAS.

Convective outlook

The convective outlook is a bulletin produced by forecasters at the Storm Prediction Center (formerly NSSFC, the National Severe Storms Forecast Center), and intended for use by other National Weather Service meteorologists. Two are produced; one for the "today" time frame (Day 1), and another for the "tomorrow" time frame (Day 2). It is one of the best sources of forecast information on the potential for severe thunderstorms.

ACUS1 KMKC 141441

SWODY1

MKC AC 141441

CONVECTIVE OUTLOOK...REF AFOS NMCGPH94O.

VALID 141500Z - 151200Z

REF WW NUMBER 0077...VALID TIL 2000Z

THERE IS A SLGT RISK OF SVR TSTMS TO THE RIGHT OF A LINE FROM PGO

OKC 30 NNE P28 35 ESE SLN OJC JEF MVN EVV BWG BNA MEM PBF PGO.

GEN TSTMS ARE FCST TO THE RIGHT OF A LINE FROM OXR FAT TPH ELY

15 NW PUC CAG LIC HLC FNB PIA FWA YNG DUJ DCA 25 W RIC RDU AND CBM

TXK FSI 60 NNE AMA RTN 10 SE ABQ 30 SSW DMN.

 

Model output data

These are numerical output bulletins from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP, formerly known as NMC), which describe forecast parameters at different locations around the country. These bulletins are available on most weather databases. For those who want the "real thing" from the supercomputers, full-fledged model output is in a binary format known as GRIB; these files are huge, hard to obtain, and are not importable into Digital Atmosphere at this time.

652

FOUS72 KWBC 201200

OUTPUT FROM ETA 12Z JAN 20 96

TTPTTR1R2R3 VVVLI PSDDFF HHT1T3T5 TTPTTR1R2R3 VVVLI PSDDFF HHT1T3T5

SEA//928157 03005 131714 30989795 GEG//894554 03407 152312 25969490

06021947750 05304 021921 34009996 06000877354 02207 101416 29979693

12010957438 -1802 992315 30019995 12014928044 03104 021809 32999795

18006957340 01501 992612 30019995 18000957342 02502 012208 30999895

24005977941 02601 012517 28019995 24011957646 02502 022516 29999794

30010967941 01201 042819 27019894 30000957544 01001 042513 27009894

36005856037 -0202 102814 26019894 36004938141 01501 072607 27009794

42000794430 -0906 152811 25019793 42003837138 00703 123009 26009693

48000783339 -0510 182710 27009792 48000614637 00007 173109 24999491